Commodity Money and the Price Level by Georgios George C Bitros :: SSRN


In the United States, the final arbiter of what is and what is not comodity moneyd as money is the Federal Reserve System. Because it is difficult to determine what to measure as money, the Fed reports several different measures of money, including M1 and M2. Distinguish between commodity money and fiat money, giving examples of each. Banks take client deposit and then loan a portion to other clients. The reserve requirement ratio is the portion of deposits banks can lend to different clients.


Another way that comodity money money sees inflation is through the debasement of the currency. Debasement means that money, typically metal coins, is devalued because there is less precious metal in the coin than the value stamped on its face. Governments may debase coins by adding copper, tin, or other less valuable alloys to coins as they are minted, while still saying they are worth (e.g., $1 in exchange). M1, the narrowest definition of the money supply, includes assets that are perfectly liquid.

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We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in oureditorial policy. Eventually, many governments no longer backed fiat currency, and the money increasingly took on a value based on public confidence. As of 1933, U.S. citizens could no longer exchange currency with the U.S. government for gold. Backing a fiat currency with a commodity provides more stability and encourages confidence in the financial system.

We can see, touch, and feel commodity money – it is physical. That means it has value in and of itself, with people trading it freely in the knowledge that someone will accept it. As exports increase due to higher demand, GDP will also increase greatly as this country relies heavily on this commodity, leading to higher prices causing inflation (indicated in Figure 2’s increase in the price level). Depending on whether the inflation is economically beneficial, this could be positive . A currency that is naturally tied to a country’s major commodities can be beneficial if global demand for a commodity increases, naturally strengthening the value of the currency. As seen in Figure 1, as the demand for a commodity shifts out the price increases to p’.

Frequently Asked Questions about Types of Money

M2 include all the money supply M1 covers and add some other assets such as saving accounts and time deposits. Commercial bank money helps create liquidity and funds in an economy. Other examples of goods that have been used as commodity money include copper, corns, tea, shells, cigarettes, wine, etc. Several forms of commodity money were employed relative to the needs that certain economic circumstances created. These additional assets are known as near-money and are not as liquid as those covered by the M1. Where metal coins are used as an officially recognized currency, the government will set a fixed value for each type of coin.

As Commodity Prices Surge Again, MENA Countries Can Draw … – International Monetary Fund

As Commodity Prices Surge Again, MENA Countries Can Draw ….

Posted: Wed, 07 Dec 2022 08:00:00 GMT [source]

The world financial system now consisted essentially of promises to BNB pay dollars, while dollars themselves were a fiat currency. By the 1700s, a new form of money began to emerge in Europe, spearheaded by the use of promissory notes, or notes of hand, among gentlemen. A gentleman’s note of hand was his promise to pay money, and was as good as money; case law in common law countries supports the notion that a note of hand is money. The issue of paper money began much earlier in China, in the 11th century, and there was also regarded as money itself. Generally, the value of commodities is less volatile, but there is always the risk that they may lose value. For example, gold is a valuable commodity, but the price of gold can decrease or increase with time.

The overwhelming majority of cash forms with which people buy and sell nowadays lack any intrinsic value whatsoever. This is money that only contains any value because the government decrees it has the full faith and credit of the nation backing it. It works because members of society and ADA businesses choose to accept it as their primary form of currency and means of exchanging goods and services. Economists measure the money supply because it affects economic activity.

Fiat money only derives its value from legal claims and obligations of the law. It is truly like a purchase voucher which can be utilized to exchange for services and goods. Originally it emerged as a means of convenience so that individuals could carry lighter paper certificates that the government guaranteed rather than having to ship and guard heavy gold and silver. Because it has not been recognized as legal tender by the government, as opposed to fiat money, individuals are not obligated to accept it as a form of payment under the law as a result. Instead, if the bearer demands it, the issuer of fiduciary money offers to swap it for a commodity or fiat money at the issuer’s discretion.

Since payment by commodity generally provides a useful good, commodity money is similar to barter, but is distinguishable from it in having a single recognized unit of exchange. Radford described the establishment of commodity money in P.O.W camps. At the same time, cross-border transactions and stability will make gold-backed stablecoins an irresistible proposition for many and an intriguing opportunity for many more.

A credit card identifies you as a person who has a special arrangement with the card issuer in which the issuer will lend you money and transfer the proceeds to another party whenever you want. Thus, if you present a MasterCard to a jeweler as payment for a $500 ring, the firm that issued you the card will lend you the $500 and send that money, less a service charge, to the jeweler. But a card that says you have such a relationship is not money, just as your debit card is not money. We use money in this fashion because it is also a medium of exchange. When we report the value of a good or service in units of money, we are reporting what another person is likely to have to pay to obtain that good or service. Cigarettes may be used as a form of commodity money in some circumstances.

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The reserve requirement ratio is the portion banks cannot lend to different clients from their savings accounts. The lower the reserve requirement ratio, the more funds will be loaned to other people, creating commercial bank money. Any type of commodity is able to fulfill the role of commodity money.

Money differs from these other stores of value by being readily exchangeable for other commodities. Its role as a medium of exchange makes it a convenient store of value. Define what is meant by the money supply and tell what is included in the Federal Reserve System’s two definitions of it . Its value is derived from its official recognition as a medium of exchange from government legislation. Fiat money is a medium of exchange that is only backed by the government.

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Who says that the dollar you have in your pocket is valuable? You will know a lot more about these questions after reading our article on the types of money. See if you can define and provide examples of commodity money after perusing the lesson above. People have accepted cigarettes and tobacco in lieu of money as a form of payment. The ‘intrinsic value’ of commodity is a crucial part of building its trust. We can look back many centuries to when goods such as tobacco or salt were used as money.

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